With the continuous advancement of the automobile industry, the automobile has evolved from a complete mechanical device into a combination of machinery and electronics. The increasing application of electronic technology in the automobile makes the comfort, safety and entertainment of the automobile improve, meeting people's diversified demands.The automobile has changed from a simple transportation tool in the past to a comprehensive platform with various functions such as transportation, entertainment and office. The proportion of automobile electronics in the total vehicle manufacturing cost has been continuously increased, and the market size of automobile electronics is also constantly expanding.
The automobile industry combines machinery and electronics
Because of the complex working environment of automobile, automobile PCB has very high requirements on reliability. Secondly, the automobile industry has a recall system, so the manufacturer needs to bear the risk of product error, and small manufacturers cannot afford it, so they will be excluded.Besides, the entry threshold of vehicle PCB is high, and it must pass a series of verification tests. The certification cycle is long, and once it passes the certification, the manufacturer will not change the supplier easily, and the order is relatively stable.
Automobile electronics can be divided into two categories: vehicle electronic control system and vehicle electronic control system.The vehicle body control system can be divided into engine control system, vehicle body control system and chassis control system. The vehicle body control system enables the combination of automobile mechanical system and electronic device, gives full play to the advantages of electronic products, improves the performance of mechanical system, and ensures the vehicle to run more safely and steadily.The on-board electronic control system mainly includes multimedia system, navigation system, driving recorder, reversing radar and other systems, which increases the convenience and entertainment of automobile use and improves the experience of automobile use.
Intelligent driving has opened up greater imagination for the automobile economy, and penetration is increasing in the automobile market.The market for ADAS (advanced driver assistance systems) is growing rapidly, from the original high-end market to the mid-end market, and improved new sensor technologies are creating new opportunities for the system.At present, the penetration rate of ADAS is less than 5%. With the further expansion and improvement of functions, as well as the encouragement and even mandatory requirements of policies, it is expected to grow at a rate of more than 20% in the future, and the market size is expected to be close to $30 billion by 2020.Various operation control, safety control and peripheral control functions of ADAS need to be implemented by PCB. It is expected that more PCB will be installed in cars that realize full autonomous driving in the future to meet driving requirements.
China smart driving market size and forecast
The PCB demand for new energy vehicles is also potentially huge.Supported by industrial policies, the domestic new energy vehicle market has maintained rapid growth since 2014.The BMS in new energy vehicles is one of the core components, and as one of the basic components of BMS, the PCB board will also benefit from the development of new energy vehicles.
Compared with traditional cars, new energy vehicles are more electronic.New energy vehicles are represented by electric vehicles. Compared with traditional fuel vehicles, the main difference lies in four major parts: driving motor, speed control controller, power battery and on-board charger. The on-board battery is mainly used as the energy source and the motor is used as the power source to drive the vehicle.Compared with traditional cars, new energy vehicles have higher requirements on the degree of electronic technology. The cost ratio of electronic devices in traditional premium cars is about 25%, while in new energy cars it is 45% to 65%.
New energy vehicle BMS: new growth point of automobile PCBLithium battery is the core energy of new energy vehicles. In order to ensure the safe and reliable operation of batteries, the batteries must be monitored in real time through the battery management system (BMS), which is also known as the brain of the battery system of electric vehicles.PCB is the hardware foundation of BMS. The large bus has 12 to 24 boards, the small car has 8 to 12 boards, the main control circuit consumption is about 0.24 square meters, and the single management unit is 2 to 3 square meters.
ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System: Advanced driving assistant System) as the transition of fully automatic before driving a car, is a kind of using all kinds of sensors installed on the car, in the first place to collect the car inside and outside environment data, static and dynamic object recognition, detecting and tracking, such as technical processing, which can let the Driver in the fastest time to detect the possibility of danger, in order to attract attention and active safety technology, to improve the security of ADAS technology principle and the reaction mechanism is similar,The information around is obtained through the perception layer, which is processed by the decision-making link. Finally, the calculation results are sent to the executive device to complete the driving operation.
Technical principles of ADAS
Millimeter wave radar is the core sensor of ADAS system. Millimeter wave radar refers to the radar operating in the millimeter wave band. It USES radar to transmit radio to the surrounding area.Millimeter wave radar can be divided into 24GHz radar and 77GHz radar.The 77GHz millimeter wave radar can measure the speed of the vehicle ahead and the distance between the two vehicles, and it can also monitor the speed and distance of its own vehicles. The 24GHz millimeter wave radar is mainly used to monitor objects near the vehicle.
Principle of automobile millimeter wave radar
Millimeter wave radar emission will bring great demand to automobile high frequency PCB.Current car millimeter wave radar in high speed development, the next two years in phase volume of automobile millimeter wave radar, general support functions of ADAS car will use at least 4 millimeter wave radar, a new audi A4 using 5 millimeter wave radar, the Mercedes s-class cars use 7 millimeter wave radar, future cycling by the average number of millimeter wave radar is expected to continue to grow, the demand for automotive radar PCB will be rapid growth.
Millimeter-wave radar products are about to enter the release period, and high frequency PCB board is needed to realize the antenna's function -- to maintain the antenna's signal strength in a small integrated space.High frequency PCB board of 77Ghz radar with higher specification will bring huge demand of corresponding high frequency PCB board with wide application.