The primary salt is the salt coating in the bath that can deposit the required metal coating on the cathode to provide metal ions.The concentration of the primary salt in the plating solution must increase or decrease in an appropriate range when other conditions remain unchanged.For example, the solution dispersibility of the solution decreased with the increase of the main salt concentration and the increase of the current efficiency.
In some cases, if the main salt metal ions in the plating solution are simple ions, then the coating has a heavy grain.Complexation ions are obtained by adding complexation agents, such as metal ions that can complexate main salts, to form complexes.A complex is a "molecular compound" formed by the interaction of simple compounds.The relative content of main salt and complexing agent, that is, free content of complexing agent, rather than absolute content, was the main factor influencing electroplating effect in the solution containing complex.
Additives are substances that do not significantly alter the electroconductivity of the coating but significantly improve the coating performance.According to the function of coating solution, additives can be divided into brightener, leveling agent and antifogging agent.
A buffer is a substance used to stabilize the ph of a solution.Such substances are generally composed of weak acid and weak acid salt or weak base and weak base salt.
The substance that can promote anode activation is called anode activator.The anode activators work to increase the current density of the anode to begin passivation so that the anode is in an active state and can dissolve normally.When the anode activator content is insufficient, the dissolution of the anode is abnormal.In serious cases, lead plating cannot be carried out normally.
Factors affecting plating quality
PH value, additives, current density, current waveform, temperature, stirring speed, etc.
Electroplating can be done with different metals, such as galvanizing, nickel plating, chrome plating, etc.